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43: The Growth of Population


1. Birth Rate

It refers to the number of live births per thousand of population per year. It is often known as Crude Birth Rate (CBR).
CBR = Number of Live Births X 1000 / Total Population, where Number of Births = Birth Rate X Total Population / 1000


Factors Affecting Birth Rate

  • Age of Marriage (above 18 years in Maldives)
  • Fertility Rate
  • Social and Economic Development
  • Cultural Beliefs
  • Status and role of women
  • Sex preference and divorce rate
  • Availability of family planning methods


2. Death Rate

It refers to the number of registered deaths per thousand of the population per year. It is often called Crude Death Rate (CDR). 
CDR = Number of Deaths X 1000 / Total Population, where Number of Deaths = Death Rate X Total Population / 1000


The Natural Rate of Increase of Population

It refers to the annual increase in population brought about when the Birth Rate exceeds Death Rate. It does not consider Migration. 
The Natural Rate of Increase = Birth Rate – Death Rate


The Infant Mortality Rate

It refers to the total number of infant (under one year of age) deaths in a year per thousand live births in the country. 


Life Expectancy

It refers to the average number of years that a person lives from birth to death. Life Expectancy increases due to social and economic development in the country.


Factors Affecting Death Rate

  • Availability of health care facilities
  • Scientific and technological progress
  • Natural and man made calamities (like floods, earth quakes etc)
  • Life Expectancy in the country


3. Net Migration

Migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another place for settlement purpose. Emigration refers to the movement of people out of the country for settlement purpose. Immigration refers to the movement of people into the country for settlement purpose.
Emigration Rate = No of Emigrants X 1000 / Total Population
Immigration Rate = No of Immigrants X 1000 / Total Population
Net Migration = Immigration Rate – Emigration Rate

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